Few Important Herbs

HYOSCYAMUS HIGER Linn ( Khurasani ajwain )

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Hyoscyamus higer Linn

COMMON NAME

:

Khurasani ajwain, Khorasanimomum, Khorasani - yamini, Thuklang.

FAMILY

:

Solanaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

The plant is destributed in the Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at altitudes of 1600 - 3000m. It is cultivated in Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and lower valleys of U.P. hills. Its cultivation has also tried in Malva area near Indore (M.P.). In H.P. it is found in Lahaul - Spiti and Kinnaur areas.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

This is a poisnous plant and should not be confused with 'Ajawain' plant. The plant is an erect, viscidly hairy, foetid annual or biennial, upto 1.5cm tall. Leaves are radical and cauline, coarsely dentate, to pinnately lobed. Flowers are yellowish green, having dark purple centre, sessile or sub - sessile and are in terminal scorpiodal cymes. Capsule encircled by globular base of the enlarged calyx. Seeds are Knee shaped and are about 1.5 mm long, brown in colour and marked with fine, but conspicuous reticulations.

PARTS USED

:

Dried leaves, flowering tops and seeds.

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

1) Hyoscyamine
2) Hyoscine

USES

:

In action, it is anodyne, anthelmintic, anti- aphrodisiac, antiseptic, astringent, cardiac, carminative, expectorant, hypnotic, mydriatic, narcotic, sedative and stomachic. Useful in cephalic trouble, colic, insanity, insomania and irregular menses. Employed in irritable conditions and nervous affections, hysteria, whooping cough, asthma etc.

PREPARATIONS

:

Vedantak rasa, Parasiyadi - churna

MARKET PRICE

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ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. (Apamarga)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Achyranthes aspera Linn.

COMMON NAME

:

Apamarga, Apang, Aghedo, Aghedi, Katalati, Uttereni, Kutri, Prikly chaff flower.

FAMILY

:

Amaranthaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

The plant is found throughout India and in the South Andeman Islands. As a weed, it is found in perennial crops, grasslands, waste places, shaded or unshaded area all over India upto an altitude of 1200mts.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

An erect herb or undershrub upto 1mt. high with often a woody root stock and much branched hairy stems. Main root, long cylindrical, thick, secondary tertiary roots present , slightly ribbed, yellowish brown in colour; odour slight; taste slightly sweet and mucilaginous. Stem yellowish brown, erect, branched, cylindrical, hairy, solid about 60cm high. Leaves petioled, alternate, elliptic - obovate or sub-orbicular, acute, entire, pubescent above and usually white woolly beneath, Flowers greenish - white, in small dence axillary heads or spikes. Bracts and bracteoles persisting, ending in a spine. Seeds subcylindric, truncate, at the apex, rounded at the base, black and shining.

PARTS USED

:

Whole dried plant.

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

Triterpinoid saponins possessing oleanolic acid as aglycone viz; A,B,C,D.

USES

:

The seeds are given in hydrophobia, in case of snake-bike, in ophthalmia and cutaneons dieseases. The flowering spikes rubbed with a little sugar are made into pills and given internally to patients bitten by mad dogs. The pulp of fresh leaves applied externally is a good remedy for scorpion stings. The ash of the plant mixed with conjee is a remedy in dropsy. Saponins obtained from the seeds have cardiotonic and diuretic activity, Saponins from the plant have been reported to possess anti inflammatory activity besides potentiating the inhibitory response to the adrenaline. Solvent extract of the aerial parts showed contraceptive and hormonal properties in rates. Root is used as abortifacient in local folklores.

PREPARATIONS

:

Apamarga Kshara, Kaphaketu-ras, Sundari- Kalp, Agastya-haritaki.

MARKET PRICE

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WITHANIA SOMNIFERA DUNAL (Ashvagandha)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Withania somnifera Dunal.

COMMON NAME

:

Ashvagandha, Asgandh, Asugandha Indian ginsing, Winter cherry.

FAMILY

:

Solanacea

DISTRIBUTION

:

The plant is found in the drier parts of India mostly in Gujrat, M.P., Rajsthan, Western U.P. Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, West Bengal, karutaka & Kerala ascending upto 1700 m. It is cultivated about more than 4000 ha. area in North- western regions of M.P. in Tehsil Mansa, Neamuch Jawad and Bhanpura and adjoining village of Kota district of Rajasthan.

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION

:

The plant is in erect, branching perennial under shrub upto 1.5m high. All parts are nearly, more or less stellately tomentose and the branches are flexsouse, terrate, and densely tomentose, leaves are petioled, 5-10cm long, ovate and sub- acute flowers are greenish or lurid-yellow, useually about 5 together in sub- ressile umbelliform cymes. Berry is 0.5-0.7 cm in diameter, enclosed in much enlarged, inflated, somewhat 5-angled, pubescent calyx and is red when ripe, seeds are many esclosed in pulp.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFICIAL PART

:

Roots very much in size and are light brown in color and usually occure in small pieces, 10-17.5 cm long and 6-12 mm in diameter, uniform in appearance, smooth and tapering in young roots. Parenchyma contains starch grains, which decreases as secondary growth starts. The young roots of the wild plants, occurring in the region have the same structure and character of Nagori variety ie , before the secondary growth takes place.

PARTS USED

:

Roots

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

I purauol ------- E/0, Total alvaloids = 0.. %
Whithanioal
Phytosterol
Withanine
Somniferene

USES

:

The roots are alternative, aphrodisiac, tonic, deobratruent , diuretic, narcotic, hyptonic, sedative, restorative and abortifaient, These are used in rheumatism, cough, debility form old age dropsy, emaciation of children, consumption and general weakness. It is valued as a potent tonic, delay ageing, graying of hairs and provides physical as well as mental strength

PREPARATIONS

:

Ashvogadh- gharita, Ashvagandhahadi-pak, Ashwagati dharasayana.

CURRENT MARKET PRICE

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ACONITUM HETEROPHYLLUM WALL ex Royle.(Atis)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Aconitum heterophyllum wall ex Royle.

COMMON NAME

:

Atis, Atish, Patish, Krawa Atis, Ativisha

FAMILY

:

Ranunculaceace

DISTRIBUTION

:

The plant is common in temperate to alpine zones of the Himalayas, from India to Kumaon occurring at altitude between 3000 to 5000m

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

An erect, tall, perennial leafy herb having biennial, paired, tuberous roots . Stem upto 1 mt tall with broad, ovate or orsicular, cordate, lobed and toothed, shortly stalked or sessile, amplesicaule. Flower bright blue to yellow greenish blue with purple view in long, many flowered peduncles. Fruit is a 5- celled capsule. Seeds are dark brown.

FLOWERING

:

August - September

FRUITING

:

September- October

PARTS USED

:

Tubers.

IDENTIFICATION OF OFFICIAL

:

The dried roots are generally avoid conical in form part down towards ; 2.5 -4.0cm long and about 0.5cm in diameter at the upper end. Externally they have grayish or light ash color and internally they are milky-white. The surface is slightly wrinkled longitudinally and marked here and there with whitish scars of small, detached roots and their upper extremity bears the scaly remains of leaves.

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

:

1. Non- tonic alkaloid- atisine(0.4%)
2. Dehydroatisine
3. Heteratisine
4. Hetisine.

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ACORUS CALAMUS Linn(Bach)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

ACORUS CALAMUS Linn

COMMON NAME

:

Bach, Vacha, Camlamus root, Vasa, Bariboj, Vekhand

FAMILY

:

Araceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

Through out India and Pakistan in damp marshy places, Commonly found in H.P., M.P. Bihar etc. In H.P., it is found in Kinnaur, Kullu, Mandi, Shimla, Kangra, Sirmour, Chamba near river beds, water course and lakes upto 2600m .In M.P., it is found in Vindha Pathari Pradesh, Narmda, Son valley, Satpura, Makul Pradesh etc.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

A semi-aquatic or marshy, perennial herb with indefinitely branched rhizomes, creeping in mud and have stout joints with large leaf scars. Rhizomes are cylindrical or somewhat compressed , about 1.5cm in diameter, smooth, pinkish or pale green; white and spongy within leaves are few, distichously alternate, forming erect tufts at the extremities of rhizomes. Scapes arise from outer leaves . Rhizomes are aromatic. Inflorescence is 4.8cm spedise. Flowers are yellowish green and fruits are red & cylindrical.

FLOWERING/FRUITING

:

April- August

PARTS USED

:

Rhizomes

IDENTIFICATION OF RAW MATERIAL

:

Cut & dried pieces of the aromatic rhizomes, which are generally flattened, somewhat curved pieces, usually some inches in length and from about 1.2 cm to 2.5 cm in diameter. Externally, it has yellowish brown or fawn colour and is more or less shrunken and wrinkled marked on its upper surface with the scars and fibrous vestiges of the leaves and on its under surface with numerous little elevated pale coloured circular dots with a dark centre.

ACTIVE INDRADIENTS

:

The dry rhizomes contain 1.5-3.5 per cent of yellow bitter aromatic volatile oil. It has a mellow odour resembling that of patchouli. The Indian oil has much higher asaron content than the commercial oil. In addition to asarone, it contains (Alpha)-pinene, d-comphene, calamene, calamenol calamenone, and alcohol's. The roots also contain a glucoside 'Acorin', calamene, tannin, mucilage, starch, Vitamin C, fatty acids, sugars and calcium oxalate.

CHEMICAL PARAMETERS

:

1.5 - 3.5 per cent yellow bitter aromatic volatile oil.

USES

:

Bach oil is used in gastric, respiratory, disentry, urinal, asthma, histeria diseases.

PREPARATIONS

:

Bacha-churna, Sarasvata-Churna, Ashwagandharishta, Yogarajaguggulu, Sanjivanivati, Mahashankhavati.

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PSORALIA CORYLIFOLIA Linn. (Bakuchi )

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Psoralia corylifolia Linn.

COMMON NAME

:

Bakuchi , Babchi, Buchkidana, Karpo- Karishi. Bhabanchi, Purple fleabane.

FAMILY

:

Papilionaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

It is found throughout India as a weed of waste places sometimes cultivated.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

An erect herb, 1-2mt height, with densely gland -dotted branches, leaves round, dotted with dark glands on both surfaces. Flowers bluish purple. Fruits black, roundish or oblong , closely pitted. Seeds are oblong and flattened, rough, dark brown, have an agreeable aromatic odour, taste aromatic and bitterish.

PARTS USED

:

Seeds

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

1) Psoralen
2) Isosoralen

USES

:

In action it is alterative, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antiseptic, carminative, deobstruent, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorent, irritant, laxative, nervine tonic, stimulant and stomachic. Useful in febrile and bilious affections, hair tonic, leucoderma (an excellent remedy), promote urination, effective in skin and mucous membrane disorders.

PREPARATIONS

:

Buchki-taila, Vidanga lep.

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ECIPTA ALBA HOOK (Bhrinraja)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Ecipta alba Hook

COMMON NAME

:

Bhrinraja, Kerarja, Bhangra, Bhangrn.

FAMILY COMPOSITAL

:

Common weed in moist situations throughout India, ascending upto 2000m on the hills. In Himachal Pradesh, herb is growing in sporadic to moderate quality in moist places and along water Channels, kulhs, ditches etc. upto 1300mt. elevation.

PART USED

:

Whole plant

DESCRIPTION OR PHYSICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

An erect, slender, rougly, pubescent herb, leaves opposite, sessile, narrowly, lanceolate, heads radiate, terminal on erect stalks, Flowers white; paplous of 2-5 mm teeth; liggules 2- toothed entire. Invohicral bracts leaflike, outer larger, receptable flat, Achenes narrowly oblong, ribbed and tipped with a pappur teeth

FLOWERING/FRUITING

:

August- November

ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

 

Alpha - terthienyl - methanol, stigna sterol, Bita - amyrin, mixture of desmethyl - wedelolacone obtained from leaves.

USES

 

Plant is reputed as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and spleen enlargement. Leaves are useful in scorpion sting. It is one of the most favourite drugs used in Jaundice. Leaf juice alongwith honey is used as a for catarrh in infants. Root is emetic, purgative, applied externally as antiseptic to ulcers & wounds The oil prepared with the herb is of great repute as a hair dye and has cooling affect on the brain.

PREPARATIONS

 

Bhringraja asava, Maha - bhringraj tail, Gandhaka Rasayana, Sutashekhara- rasa, Anada- bhairva- rasa.

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PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA Linn. (Chita)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Plumbago zeylanica Linn

COMMON NAME

:

Chita, Chitrak, Chitra, Chitrakamula, Leadwort.

FAMILY

:

Plumbaginaceae

PART USED

:

Roots ( Root bark )

DISTRIBUTION

:

The species is widespread and is possibly indegineous to south -east Asia. It is found wild in pennisuler India and West Bengal and cultivated in Garden throughout India. In H.P. , it is found growing sporadically near field borders, often in shrubberies in Mandi, Hamirpur, Kangra,Chamba, Bilaspur, Solan, Sirmour upto an elevation of 1300mts.

DESCRIPTION OR PHYSICAL

:

A rhambling, subscandent perennial herb or under Identification shrub with woody, striate stem. Leaves are ovate glabrous and the flowers are white in colour in elongated spikes, capsules are ablong, pointed covered with mucilage and are contained in viscid, glamour, persistent calyxtube. The roots are 6-20 mm in diameter and seldom branched. Externally these are dark, radish brown, and somewhat shrivlled and marked here and there by small warty projection. Internally it is brown and striated. It taste acrid & biting; considered poisonous.

FLOWERING & FRUITING

:

Nearly all the year around except in winters.

ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

:

Roots contains a number of naphathaquinone derivatives like plumbagin , 3- chloroplumbagin and slliptinone etc. Also contains free glucose, fructose, and enzymes-protease and invertase leaves and stem contains volatile oil.

USES

:

The root porresses obortifacient and vesicant properties. It is considered diuretic, coustic and expellent of phlagmatic tumors and is useful in rheumatism. A root paste prepared with milk, vinegar, salt & water is used as an external application in leprosy and other skin diseases of obstinate character. The dry is apt to cause abortion plumbagin has shown antifiungal, antibacterial and anticancer properties.

CHEMICAL PARAMETERS

:

a) Total ash NMT 3%
b) Acid insoluble ash NMT 1%
c) Alcohol soluble NLT 12% Extractives
d) Water soluble NLT 12% Extractives

PREPARATIONS

:

Citrakadi vati, Citrakaheritaki, Chitrekadi churna

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DATURA

Datura innoxia (Sadahdhetura)
Datura metel (Kanak Datura)
Datura stramonium L. (Safed Datura) 

 

FAMILY

:

Solanaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

Datura stramonium is native to Tropical America, naturalized in Himalayas, upto 2700m, in cultivated areas, waste lands and near village habitations. Datura metel and Datura innoxia occurs through out India and is occasionally grown in gardens.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION :

1) Datura stramonium

:

Datura stramonium is an annual, erect nearly glabrous, tall, robust herb with broad, ovate, coarsely and irregularly lobed and toothed leaves. Flowers are white, single on short, usually axillary stalks; 7.5 to 15cm long tubular, capsules are ovoid, 3.5cm X 2.5cm covered with rigid, sharp prickles, surrounded at the base by enlarged and refluxed lower part of the calyx. Seeds black, wrinkled.

2) Datura metel

:

Herbs or shrubs, the whole plant densely clothed with greyish tomentum. Stem erect, stout, herbaceous, terete. Leaves 15-20cm long, broadly ovate, acute, unequal at the base and often cordate, densely tomentoes on both surfaces and generally glandular. Flowers pale-white, large, erect. Fruit is a capsule; globose, covered with long, rather slender spines. Seeds numerous, compressed, whitish gray.

3) Datura innoxia

:

Datura innoxia ia a coarse bushy annual growing to a height of 90-120cm. It closely resembles Datura metel and is distinguished by the presence of dense pubescence, ovate leaves with chordate base, 10-toothed corolla and long weak spines on the fruit which is capsule with locular dehiscence

PARTS USED

:

All parts including seeds.

PREPARATIONS

:

Kanakasava, Dugdhavati, Laghu vishgarbha taila, Dhaturadi - pralep.

USES

:

All Daturas are narcotics, poisonous when used in large doses and medicinal in small doses.
Leaves and roots of Datura metel are good palliative in spasmodic asthma. The drug affects the sympathetic nervous system, but dose not affect the motor or sensory nerves. It is useful in dysmenorrhoea, neuralgia and sciatica; is given with benefit in cases of nymphonia and in purpura mania with a tendency to suicide. Useful in boils, breast, inflammation caused by excessive formation of milk, asthma, salivation, travel sickness(air or sea), diarrhoea, enlarged testicles, insanity and itch. Oil medicated with Datura is applied to headache, to boils and skin diseases.

MARKET PRICE

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ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

:

Hyoscyamine Hyoscine 
Datura stramonium
Scopolamine
Datura metel
Datura innoxia

 
ALOE BARBADENSIS MILL ( Kumari )

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Aloe barbadensis Mill.

COMMON NAME

:

Kumari,Ghee Knwar, Ghrita-Kumari, Aloe, Kwarpatha, Ghuarpatha

FAMILY

:

Liliaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

Hotter areas of India. Semiarid places from dry westward valleys of the Himalayas upto Cape Comorin. Commonly planted in Indian gardens and also found in field borders along paths and slopres.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

It is a perennial fleshy plant. Leaves sessile crowded, lanceolate errect, spreading, spiny toothed at the margin, fleshy. Flowers on a scape, scaly, branched and longer than leaves, yellow in colour. Fruit -capsule.

PARTS USED

:

Fleshy leaves.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFICIAL PARTS

:

Leaves large, succulent, subulate, sessile, 20-25cm long, and 5-10cm wide. Apex in the form of a sharp and acute spine. Both the surfaces are strongly cuticularized, Dried leaf juice dark chocolate brown to black in colour and of irregular masses. Odour, characterstic; taste very bitter.

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

Hydroxyanthraquinone derivatives ( 25-40%) viz; aloin & 7-hydroxyaloin isomers, Barbaloin

USES

:

The plant is bitter, cooling, purgative, abortifacient, cathartic, stomachic, blood purifier, emmenagogue, alterative aphrodiasiac, anthelmintic, useful in eye diseases and uterine complaints. Fresh juice of leaves used as cooling and in fevers. Dried juice is useful in constipation. Pulp is edible as confection, vegetable and pickle.

PREPARATIONS

:

Kumariasava, Kumari-vati, Kumarika-vati, Rajapravarttni-vati, Kumaripak, Loha-Rasayana, Aloe compound.

MARKET PRICE

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TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (Willd.) Miers - (Giloe)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers.

COMMON NAME

:

Giloe, Guduchi, Amrita, Gulancha, Gurch, Gulvel

FAMILY

:

Menispermaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

This climber is found throughout the tropical and Sub-tropical parts of India upto 900 mt. elevation.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

It is a glabrous, climbing, succulent shrub with rough conrky bark. Leaves are 10cm 20cm in diameter, broadly ovate, deeply cordate and shortly acuminate. Flowers are small and yellow. Fruit is of the size of a pea and red in colour.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFICIAL PARTS USED

:

Stem terrate, sparcely lenticellate and often producing filiform aerial roots. Young stem green, with a smooth surface ; older one have a warty surface due to presence of circular lenticels. Fracture is fibrous. Taste intensely bitter and odourless.

PARTS USED

:

Dried stem pieces.

PRESENT MARKET PRICES

:

Dried stemp pieces Rs. 10.50 /- per Kg.

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

1) Tinosporin
2) A furanoid diterpene - columbin
3) Giloin
4) Giloinin

USES

:

In action it is alterative, anthelmintic, anti - arthritic, anti periodic, anti - pyretic, aphrodisiac, bitter tonic, blood purifier, cardiac, carminative, digestive, diuretic and expectorant. Starch from the roots and stems is used in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery. Juice of the fresh plant is diuretic and used in gonorrhoea. Columbin has shown antidiabetic properties.

 
CURCUMA DOMESTICA Val. (Haldi)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Curcuma domestica Val.

COMMON NAME

:

Mulathee, Yashti - madhu, Mithi Lakdi, Liquorice.

FAMILY

:

Zingiberaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

A perennial herb, cultivated mainly in Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Karnatka, Assam, M.P. India is producing 90% of total production of the world.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFICIAL PARTS USED

:

A perennial herb, rootstock large, avoid with cylindrical tubers orange colour inside. It varies a good deal in size and shape may be avoid or almost round and generally cut up into two or more pieces, they are cylindrical tapering towards the extremities and often more or less bent, bears remains of the rootless and leafbuds. It is of a deep brownish yellow colour, of firm, resinous consistence and has a peculair aromatic odour.

PARTS USED

:

Rootstock/Rhizomes

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

1) An alkaloid curcumin
2) An essential oil
3) Fresh rhizomes yield 0.24% oil, containing zingiberine.

USES

:

In action turmeric is, alternative, anthelmintic, antiperiodic, antiparastic, aromatic and astringent, bitter, blood purifier, carminative, drying, hot, stimulant and tonic. Useful in boils, bruises, chronic bronchitis, cold, cough and coryza, esonophilia, eyewashes, liver and jaundice, skin diseases, swellings and wounds of all kinds.

PREPARATIONS

:

Haridrakhand, Chandraprabha-vati, Laghu- vis-garva taila, Pippalasava, Punarnava-mandur, Sundershanchurna, Vidangadi-lep. Termeric is of utmost importance of Indians ceremonially, religiously and domestically.

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PLANTAGO OVATA FORSK ( ISABGOL )

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Plantago ovata Forsk

COMMON NAME

:

Isabgol

FAMILY

:

Plantaginaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

It is a plant of West Asian origin, introduced in India during Muslim settlement in middle ages . It is cultivated in 16000 ha land in Gujrat and parts of Southern Rajasthan producing about 13100 tons of seeds and 3200 tons of seed husk annually, 90% of which is exported. It is the first ranking foreign exchange earner.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

Isabgol is an annual herb, which attains a height of 30-45cm under cultivation. It is nearly stemless softly hairy plant with large narrowly linear, 7.5-20 cm long and about 0.5cm broad, cylindrical to avoid in shape and bear between 45 to 69 flowers. The flowers are bisexual, teteramereus, anemophilous and protogynous and as such favoring out-crossing. The fruit is an ellipsoid capsule, about 8cm long containing 23mm long, boatshaped, smooth rosy white seeds. The coating of the seed provides the husk on mechanical milling.

PARTS USED

:

Seed & seed - husk

IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFICIAL PARTS

:

Isabgol husk is a membranous covering of the seed, white to light pink in colors, it is 2 to 3mm X 0.5 to 1.0 mm in dimension, translucent and odorless. It absorbs moisture and forms a tasteless mucilaginous substance which constitutes the drug.

USES

:

It is considered as a safe laxative particularly beneficial in case of habitual constipation, chronic diarrhea & dysentery.

MARKET PRICE

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NARDOSTACHYS GRANDIFLORA Dc. Syn. N. jatamansi DC.

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Nardostachys grandiflora Dc. Syn. N.
jatamansi DC.

COMMON NAME

:

Jatamansi, Masi,Balchhrrh, Mansi.

FAMILY

:

Valerianaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

This plant is found in the alpine Himalayans from H.P. to Sikkim and Bhutan at an attitude between 3000 to 5000 m.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

It is an aromatic, erect, perennial herb, 10-60cm high with long, stout, woody rhizomatic root stock covered with tail like brown fibers left over from the withered leaves towards the stem, while the root continuos to penetrate deep in the soil. Leaves are radical in nature, long, narrow and the flowers are creamy white, often rosy or pale pink in appearance arising in terminal corymbose cymes. Fruit is small, 4mm long, covered with minute hairs.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFICIAL PART

:

A short position of the rhizomes as thick as little finger, drak official part gray, covered by a tuft of fine, reddish brown fiber and gives an appearance of a tail. Fibers are malted together as network. It has a heavy aromatic odour and tastes bitter.

FLOWERING

:

July - September

FRUITING

:

September-October.

PARTS USED

:

Rhizomes

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

E/o - having jatamansone (0.02-0.1 %) jatamansic acid, jatamansinone, Alkaloid- actinidin.

USES

:

Locally leaves are used to prepare 'Sataushadi' a native drug, 'dhoop' and prescribed as a blood purifier. Roots are used in drug and recommended for epilepsy, disease of digestive and respiratory organs, Jaundice and leprosy. As a home remedy the herb is used in flatulence, colicky pains and as a tonic in general debility.

PREPARATIONS

:

Himani kalyan tail, Rakshoghnaghrita, Pippalayasav, cultivation practices laghu- visgarva tail.

MARKET PRICE

 

 

 

BUNIUM PERSICUM (Bioss.) fedt. - (Kalazira)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Bunium persicum (Bioss.) fedt.

COMMON NAME

:

Kalazira, Shia - zira, Carway, Shingyzira, mawo,dru.

FAMILY

:

Umbelliferae ( Apiaceae )

DISTRIBUTION

:

A herb native to Europe and west Asia and is now cultivated in Bihar, Orissa, Punjab, Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and in the hills of Kumaon, Garhwal Kashmir and Chamba. Also found wild in North Himalayan regions. It grows wild in H.P. in the drier parts of Kinnaur, Lahaul-Spiti and Pangi-Bharmour area.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

Biennial or annual herb, root tapering, brown, often branched below, stem erect cylindrical, hollow; faintly striate, smooth much branched ; branches ascending. Leaves compound. Flowers white in umbels. Fruits yellowish brown.

FLOWERING / FRUITING

:

May to August

PARTS USED

:

Fruits ( commonly called as seeds)

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

:

Lipids, umbelliferone, scopoletin and herniarin, E/o contain 45 - 65% Carvone.

USES

:

Fruits are used as spice and flowering agent for various articles like bread, meat, vegetable, brandy and liquors etc. Oil from the fruit is also used for mouthwash, in perfumes and perfumed soap. Seed extract agglutinate human blood cells. Fruit is used as antiseptic in Europe, used in flatulence and stomech disorders.

PREPARATIONS

:

Hingeawastak- churna, laven blaskar- churna, Yograjgugglu, Vidangradilouha.

MARKET PRICE

:

 

 

GLORIOSA SUPERBA LINN (Kalihari)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Gloriosa superba Linn.

COMMON NAME

:

Kalihari, Langli, Agnishikha, Garbhnut, Glorylily.

FAMILY

:

Liliaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

Throughout tropical India. It is frequently distributed in Sal forests.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

A tall branching, herbaceous ( 1-3m) ornamental creeper. Leaves alternate, opposite or ternately whorled, lanceolate, strongly nerved, nerves parallel , leaf-tip ending in a tendril like spiral. Flowers large, showy, axillary, Solitary on long pedicels, nodding. Perianth 7.5 - 10cm across, with crisply waved margins, greenish at first, then yellow, passing through orange and scarlet to crimson. Fruit is large oblong capsule upto 5cm long. Seeds subglobose, Testa spongy, wing like.

PARTS USED

:

Tuberous root stock and seeds.

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

1) Superbine
2) Gloriosine
3) Colchicine (1.3 percent )

USES

:

The tubers are pungent, bitter, acrid; anthelmintic, lexative, abortifacient, useful in chronic ulcers, leprosy, inflammation, piles, thirst etc.; remove thorns, spines, nails, expels skin parasites and intestinal worms. The leaf juice is used for killing lice in hair. Root paste is an antidote to snake bites, while root powder is given in rheumatic fevers.

PREPARATIONS

:

Kasisadi - taila, Langulirasayane, Laghu - vishgarbha- taila.

MARKET PRICE

:

 

 
ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA C.B.( larke)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Andrographis paniculata C.B.( larke)

COMMON NAME

:

Kalmegh, Kirayat, Mahatiat, Kirata.

FAMILY

:

Acanthaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

The plant is widely distributed in tropical & Sub - tropical parts of India. It is also cultivated in gardens from Lucknow to Assam especially in Bengal.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

It is an erect, glabrous, annual, much branched herb upto 90cm high, branches sharply quadrangular, often narrowly winged in the upper parts. Leaves simple, opposite, short petioles, 2-7 cm long and 1-3 cm wide, lanceolate, glabrous, slightly undulate, pole beneath; base tapering; main nerves 4-6 pairs, slender, petioles 0-6 mm long. Flowers pink in solitary, axillary and terminal panicles. Capsules erect, linear-oblong, compressed, longitudinally furrowed on the broad faces, thinly glandular hairy; seeds numerous, subquardrate

PARTS USED

:

Abone ground parts

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

1) Andrographolide( 0.5 - 0.9% )
2) Kalmeghin

USES

:

A common house hold remedy given to babies suffering from stomach complaints. The drug is alternative anthelmintic, cholagogue, febrifuge, stomachache and tonic. Useful in debility, dysentery, dyspepsia, fever, terpidity of alimentary canal, loss of appetite and worms.

MARKET PRICE

:

 

 

SOLANUM VIARUM DUNAL (Kantkari )

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Solanum viarum Dunal

COMMON NAME

:

Kantkari ,Bari Kateri, Kandiari, Ban - Bhindi

FAMILY

:

Solanaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

It is widely distributed in sub - continent, extending from sea level to 2000 m and is reported from Khasia, Jaintia and Naga hills of Assam and Manipur and in the NEFA, Sikkim, West Bengal, Orissa, the upper Gangetic plain upto an altitude of 1600m.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

It is a stout, much branched under shrub varying in height between 0.75m to 1.5m with almost straight prickles sometimes mixed with a few curved spines on the stem. Leaves ovate, lobed, lobes triangular, hirsute and prickly on both the surfaces. Flowers are white in colour and are in lateral, 1-4 flowered racemes. Berries are yellowish or greenish, globose and 2.5cm in diameter, seeds are smooth, brown and compressed.

PARTS USED

:

Whole plant in ISM and barries only in Phytochemical industry.

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

Berries contain Solasodine (upto 4%) and diosgenin in traces.

USES

:

It is much valued for solasodine used in various formulations, including birth control pills. In Ayurvedic medicines, it is used as a substitute for Brihati in preparation of cough syrups etc.

PREPARATIONS

:

Steroidal/ hormonal preparations, Kantkarikshara.

MARKET PRICE

:

 

 

Mucuna Pruriens (L) DC.(Kiwanch)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Mucuna Pruriens (L) DC.

COMMON NAME

:

Kiwanch, Kaunch, Kapikachuka, Marketi

FAMILY

:

Papilionaceae ( Legiminoseae)

DISTRIBUTION

:

This plant is found almost all over India. It is Cosmopolitan in the tropics. In H.P., it is found in foothills.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

It is an annual half-woody, twining herb with long or cylindrical branches. Leaves are alternative, 3- foliate, petioles are 6.3-11.3cm long, are ovate or rhomboid, membranous and glabrescent above, 15-20cm long and are on short, thick, hairy stalks with stipulate at their base. Flowers racemes are 15-30cm long and are solitary or 2-3 togather bearing purplish flowers. Pod is 5-7.5 by 1.2cm; 4.6 seeded, turgid, falcately curved on both ends, densely clothed with persistent irritant bristles, which are at first palebrown and afterwords turn steel grey.
Seeds are 4-5, separated by cellular particulars, about 0.5 - 0.75cm long, avoid, somewhat compressed, smooth, white or black or spotted in colour. Hillium is large and oblong.

FLOWERING

:

July- September

FRUITING

:

Oct- November

SEED COLLECTION

:

January- February

PARTS USED

:

Seeds (White & black color).

CHEMICAL PARAMETERS

:

Moisture         - 9.1%
Ether extract   - 2.96%
Fiber              - 6.75%
Proteins          - 25.03%
Minerals          - 3.95%
Calcium           - 0.16%
Phosphorous     - 0.47%
Iron                - 0.02%

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

:

The seeds contains alkaloids mucuadine, Mucunadinine, mucudininene and Pruriendine alogwith mucunin, mucunadine, and small amount of nicotine. Seeds also contain L-dopa, glutarthione, lecithin, gallic acid, a glucoside and amino acids. Trichomes from pods yields serotonin.

USES

:

Kaunch is anthelmintic ( hairs), aphrodisiac, astringent, diuretic and nirvana tonic. It is useful in cholera, dropsy general debility, lencorrhoea, Seminal weakness and as a tonic.

PREPARATIONS

:

Vanari gutika and masbaladi-pachan, L-Dopa.

MARKET PRICE

 

 

 

CROCUS SATIVUS Linn (Kesar)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Crocus sativus Linn

COMMON NAME

:

Kesar, Keshara, Kunkuma, Jafron, Zabran, Saffron.

FAMILY

:

Iridacaeae

PART USED

:

Dried stigma and top of the style.

DISTRIBUTION

:

Native to south Europe and West Asia, cutivated in Kashmir Valley, especially in Pampore, Kishtwar, Srinager, Phulwama Anathnag upto an altitude of 1600 m . In H.P. it is cultivated in Sangla area and in U.P. hills, it is cultivated in Ranikhet area.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

A bulbous perennial herb with long linear, channlled leaves ; flowers deep violet, fumble shaped, stalkless , and appearing in autumn with the leaves. Petals narrow elliptic, equal, fused below into long slender tube, style orange stigma brick red.

ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

 

Crocin, crocetin, picro-crocid e/o, B and R crotene, lycopene, rivoflavin and thiamine.

USES

 

Saffron is used principally for its colouring and flowering properties. It is used as a nerve sedative, stimulant, stomachic, aborifacient and as emmengogone and is used in fevers and smack bite, melan cholia and enlargement of lever & spleen and is a good remedy for catarrhal affections of children.

PREPARATIONS

 

Kumkunadi ghrita, Kumkumdya tail. Besides this, it Is in demand for colouring, flowering and for other ceremonial purposes.

 
SAUSSUREA COSTUS (Falc,) Lipsch. Syn. S. lappa C.B. clerke. (Kuth)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Saussurea costus (Falc,) Lipsch. Syn. S. lappa C.B. clerke.

COMMON NAME

:

Kuth, Pachak, Kushtha, Kooth, Kust-Hindi , Costus.

FAMILY COMPOSITAL

:

The plant is found in kashmir and the surrounding country, where it grows on moist slops at altitutes of 2600-4000m . In Himachal Pradesh, it is found in Kinnaur and Lahaul - Spiti districts.

PART USED

:

Root

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

The plant is a tall, perrinnial herb upto 2 mt high. leaves are very large at the base, borne on the winged stalks and upper leaves are smaller, sometimes with two lobes at the base of the leaves, almost clasping the stems. Flowers are about 2 cm long , bluish purple or almost black, born on rounded flower heads: few flowers head are cluster together. Papules is about 1.7cm long, feathery, giving a curious, fluffy appearance to the fruitingflowers heads.

ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

 

Saussurine ( 0.05 percent)
Volatile oil (1.5-2.5 percent)
Resin (6 percent)

USES

 

Useful in asthma, bronchitis, colic, cough, dental trouble, diarrhoea and dysentery, fever flatulence, headache, hicough, hysteria, in some cases of heart troubles, menstruation touble, rheumatism and promotes urination. The drug has a remarkable effect in controlling bronchial asthma .

PREPARATIONS

 

Kustadi-churna, kustadi - kwath, kustadi-tail, pippalaya sava, Laghuvisgar-va tail.

MARKET PRICE

 

 

 
PICRORHIZA KUROOA ROYLE EX BANTH (Kutki)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Picrorhiza Kurooa Royle ex Banth.

COMMON NAME

:

Kutki, Karru, Picrorhiza.

FAMILY

:

Scrophulariaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

The plant is found in the alpine Himalayan from Kashmir to Sikkim at an elevation of 2800 to 4500 m above mean sea level.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

The plant is a trailing herb with jointed and zigzag underground stems (rhizomes) giving off shoots at joints and also rooting at the nodes. Leaves are spathulate and dentate. Flowers are bluish white, showy and are arranged in dense, terminal and spicate recemes. Capsules are avoid and conical

FLOWERING

:

June- July.

FRUITING

:

August- September

PARTS USED

:

Rhizomes

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

:

Picrorhizin ( a brown resinous glycoside), kutkin ( a gly- cosidal bitter principal) kurrin ( non-bitter substance)

USES

:

The dried plant parts are used in fevers and cholera. It is laxative in small doses and cathartic in large doses. Also considered as a valuable bitter tonic.

PREPARATIONS

:

Amoebica tab., Sudarsanchurna, Amritarista, Kumaryasava, Yograjgugglu.

MARKET PRICE

:

 

 
GLYCYRRIZA GLABRA Linn (Mulathee)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn

COMMON NAME

:

Mulathee, Yashti - madhu, Mithi Lakdi, Liquorice.

FAMILY

:

Fabaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

This plant is found wild in Persia, Turkistan and Afganistan. Common in the rice field of Spain and Italy, The plant is cultivated in Punjab and Sub - Himalayan tracts from the chenab eastwords, Sindh and Peshwar valley, Burma and Andaman Islands.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

A tall, erect, hardy herb or undershurb. Leaves compound, leaflets 4-7 pairs. Flowers Lilac or light violet. Fruits densely covered with small, spinous outgrowth. Rootstock threws out numerous additional roots.

IDENTIFICATION OF THE OFFICIAL PARTS USED

:

Root nearly cylindrical, upto 2cm in diameter. Outer surface yellowish brown or dark brown in colour, externally longitudinally wrinkled with patches of cork. Fracture, coarsely fibrous in bark and splintery in wood. Odour, characteristic; taste sweetish.
Market sample of root varies much in size, the largest pieces being 5cm or more in diameter and about 10-12cm long.

PARTS USED

:

Dried Roots

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

Glycyrrhizen ( 2-9%)
Glycyrrhizic acid
Glycyrrhetinic acid

USES

:

In action it is cooling, demulcent, diuretic, emmenagogue, emollient, febrifuge, laxative, ophthalmic, restorative, supportive and tonic. Useful in abdominal pain, asthma, blood purifier, bronchitis, cough, dysuria and oedema, epilepsy, fever, gastric and deodenal ulcer, hair tonic, heart trouble, hoarseness, jaundice, nervine tonic, seminal flow increases, skin diseases, sorethroat and unhealthy tumors. Mostly used as flavoring material for medicinal PREPARATIONS, as aromatic syrups and elixirs for masking the taste of nauseous medicines.

PREPARATIONS

:

Yasthadi - churna, Yasthadi - Kwath, Yasthimadhyadya - taila, sudarshan churna, pinda tail

MARKET PRICE

 

 

 
ABLMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS MEDIC. (Muskdana)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Nardostachys grandiflora Dc. Syn. N.
jatamansi DC.

COMMON NAME

:

Muskdana or Kasturi bhindi

FAMILY

:

Malvacaeae

DISTRIBUTION

:

This plant is found in the alpine Himalayans from H.P. to Sikkim and Bhutan at an attitude between 3000 to 5000 m.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

This plant is found wild all over the Deccan and karnataka in the hilly regions and at the foothill of Himalayas. The plants has been introduced in the terai region of Kumaon (U.P.) as a kharif crop, but probably no attention has been made to cultivate it, except in Bombay. It is also being grown in Lucknow condition. It is also grown naturally in mixed forest of Baster, Raipur, Bilaspur, Nandal and Raigarh areas.

DESCRIPTION

:

An erect, annual or biennial, hirsute heb, 0.6-1.8m in height. Leaves polymorphous; lower ovate, acute upper palmately 3.7 lobed, Flower bright yello, large usually solitary axillary sometimes in few flowered racemes; capsules 6.5-7.5cm long, ovate, acute, hispid, seeds sub-reniform black, musk scented.

CLIMATE

:

It requires tropical, warm and humid climate but can also be grown in sustropical areas. Frost is not good for its cultivation. About 1200 to 1400 mm rainfall annual is good for its cultivation.

 
RHEUM AUSTRALE D. Don (Revandchini)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Rheum australe D. Don

COMMON NAME

:

Revandchini, Archa, Ravatchini Rhubarb

FAMILY

:

Poly gonaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

The herb is distributed in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at an altitude of 3300-5200 mts

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

A robust perennial herb with thick, long roots, 1-15m tall and grows on rocky land. Roots are stout and the stem is hollow. Lower leaves are 20-50cm in diameter and are broadly ovate. Flowers are small and dark purple in colour fruits are purple and angled.

FLOWERING

:

June -July

FRUITING

:

August -September

PARTS USED

:

Rhizomes & Roots

MAIN CONSTITUENTS

:

Chrysophanic acid. Emodin

USES

:

Locally the roots are externally used in wounds. The fleshly petiole eaten raw or after roasting and prevents giddiness on ascending heights Medicinally the roots are used as a purgative and considered useful in dysentery, diarrhoea and a tonic dyspepsia.

PREPARATIONS

:

 Gripe waters, Ghuttis.

MARKET PRICE

:

 

 
TEPPHROSIA PURPUREA (L) Pers. ( Vipni )

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Tephrosia purpurea (L) Pers.

COMMON NAME

:

Vipni, Sharpunkha, Sarphonka, Ban-Neal Gach, Utati, Godkkan

FAMILY

:

Papilionaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

In our country, it naturally occurs upto 6000' height. It grows in all tropical plains.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

It is a straight, branched perennial plant attaining a height of 1-3'. Stem is green, branched, smooth, Nodes and internodes are very clear on the stems. Roots are simple taproot. Its leaves are having 5-9 leaflets which are oblong -oblanceolate and bristle tipped. Every leaflet is about 2.5 cm long and 1.5 cm broad. Upper surface of the leaflets are smooth & light hairy from beneath. Flowers are red or violet and opposite from leaves, arranged in racemes. Flowers are 6.25 mm to 8mm long. Pods are 3.5 to 5 cm long and 4 mm broad. These are smooth or light hairy and tips are blunt. Every pod is having green grey colour 4-10 wax coated, spotted seeds.

PARTS USED

:

Whole plant.

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

In Roots
1) Rutin (2.5%)
2) Tephrosin
3) Deguelin
4) Quercetin
5) Isotephrosin
6) Rotenone

USES

:

Roots are used in diarrhoea, rheumatism, asthma, urine troubles, stomachic. Leaves are rich in Nitrogen & Potassium and that’s way used as green manuring crop. The whole plant is used in constipation, diuretic, respiratory troubles, piles, cough, kidney and liver related troubles etc.

 

RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA (L.) BENTH. Ex Kurz (Sarpgandha)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz

COMMON NAME

:

Sarpgandha, chota chand, Harki, chundrika, Harkaya

FAMILY

:

Apocynacea

DISTRIBUTION

:

Rauvolfia serpentina is an erect, evergreen shrub, 0.6 to 1 m. high, which grows in Indian sub-continent, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Indonesia.Its is generally collected from wild, although it is cultivated to a limited extent in India and elsewhere.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

Roots upto 15 cm in length and 2 cm in diameter, stout, thick, tortuons. Surface is slightly wrinkled rough with coarse longitudinal marking. External colons greyish yellow to brown, wood pale yellow. Fracture short, irregular. Odourless; taste very bitter.

PARTS USED

:

Roots

Preparations

 

Sarpgandha Tablet
Sarpgandhaghan Bati

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

A) Alkalerids -
1) Reserpine (0.1%)
2) Rescinnamine (0.03%)
B) A hateroyohimbane desivative - Serpentine.

USES

:

Rauvolfia serpentina roots, commonly known as serpentine roots or sarpgandha, is one of the most important drugs used in traditional as well as in modern system of medicine. In ayurvedic and unani system of medicine, it is a drug fro varous types of ailments, ranging from disorders of central nervous system such as maniacal behaviour, insanity, epilepsy and insomnia to intestinal disorders, child birth and opacity addo cornea. Whereas in modern system it is used as antihypertensive and sedative drug.

 

CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA VAHL ( Senna, Sunnai )

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Cassia angustifolia Vahl

COMMON NAME

:

Senna, Sunnai

FAMILY

:

Caesalpiniacee ( Leguminosae)

DISTRIBUTION

:

This plant is native to South Arabia and west Asia. It is an exotic plant and it is grown in Tinnevelly and Ramnathpuram district of Tamil Nadu.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

It is an erect shrub, seldom reaching more than 70cm in height. The leaves are pinnate with narrow acute lanceolate and glabrous leaflets of pale green colour. The flowers are brilliantly yellow in colour and borne as a racemose inflorescence often 30-45cm in length. The pods are flat and thin about 2cm wide & 7 cm long. The pods contain 5-7 obvate, dark brown and nearly smooth seeds.

PARTS USED

:

Leaves and pods

ACTIVE INGRADIENTS

:

Sennosides A,B,C,D. Pods contain total sennosides : 3 -5% Leaves contain total sennosides: 2.5 - 4%

USES

:

Senna drug is used as laxative. Leaves are also used in herbal tea, bakery products and some home preparations.

Preparations  

 

Kabjhar Granules
Virechani Tablet
Panchsakar churna
 

 

ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILLD. (Shatawari)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Asparagus racemosus Willd.

COMMON NAME

:

Shatawari, Stimuli, Sativa, Bachuscta, Bhearu, Shatpadi.

FAMILY

:

Liliaceae

PART USED

:

Tuberous root

DISTRIBUTION

:

This plant found in Asia, Africa and Australia. It is distributed throughout tropical and subtropical parts of India ascending upto 1300m in the Himalayas. In M.P., it is found in Sal and mixed forest. It's allied species. A adscendens Roxb. found in H.P. and it has been introduced in the Nauni herbal Garden and is performing well.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

A straggling or scandent, much branched, spinous shrub, it is 3-5 'high & progressed as a climber. Its branches are thin and leaves are thin needle and 1.3 to 2.5cm long. Its flowers are white in colour and fruits are small, round in shape & red in colour when riped. Its seeds are black in colour.

FLOWERING

:

August- September

FRUITING

:

Dec.- Jan.

ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

:

Satavarin -1
Satavarin -IV Root
Asparagine
Saponin (seroidal)

USES

:

Roots are used as appetizing, diuretic, aphrodisiac, laxative, astringent useful in dysentery, diarrhoea throats complaints and leprosy. Root bark is taken with milk for vitality and strength. It is an ingredient of geri forte used against fatigue and Senile pruritus. Used as demulcent in vetenary medicines. Delicious dishes are prepared out of its tender shoots. It is regarded as scared plant and considered auspicious on marriages, ceremonies at other oracle rites.

PREPARATIONS

:

Shatavarighrita, Narayana taila, Vishnu tail, Satanulyadiloha, Shatavaripankha.

 

VALERIANA JATAMANSI JONES (Sugandhwal)

 

BOTANICAL NAME

:

Valeriana jatamansi Jones.

COMMON NAME

:

Sugandhwal, Tager, mushkbala

FAMILY

:

Valerianaceae

DISTRIBUTION

:

This plant occurs abundantly in the temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan at an altitude of 1300-3800mts. and in the Khasi hills between 1250-1800 Mt. In Himachal Pradesh it is quite common in forest undergrowth all over between 1600-3600mts.

BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION

:

A pubescent, perennial herb, having horizontal, thick root stock with thick descending fibrous roots; stems 15-45 cm high, usually typed. basal leaves are deeply cordate, ovate, usually acute and toothed. Stem leaves are much smaller, few, entire or pinnate. flowers are white or tinged with pink in terminal corymbose ; often unisexual. Fruits hairy or nearly hairless.

FLOWERING/ FRUITING

 

April-May/June.

PARTS USED

:

Roots & Rhizomes

MAIN CHEMICAL INGREDIENT

:

Volatile oil (0.5-2.12%)
Valepotriates (upto 3.82%)

PHARMACEUTICAL USES

:

The drug is much used in making perfumed powder and cardiac preparations. The oil is also used in beer & tobacco Industries, useful in hysteria, epilepsy, Chorea, shell shock and neurosis. Dried rhizomes are also employed in hair oils and perfumes, as incense and in medicines for hysteria and nervous problems.

PREPARATION

:

Sudarshan-churna, Pippalayasava, Dasangalep and various other preparations

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